BIM matrix of the future
The working group on the implementation of information modeling technologies (BIM) in construction was created by the Moscow construction complex. Currently, BIM-technologies (Building Information Modeling) are used everywhere, their advantage is obvious, including when designing residential areas created by the renovation program. And by 2020, all companies implementing projects on public procurement must master the technology of BIM-modeling.
The press tour organized by the construction complex of the capital last week, in which the Moscow Perspective correspondent took part, was a good opportunity to get acquainted with the practice of government agencies, commercial organizations that successfully master digital technologies in construction.
For the future and for balance
Sophisticated information models today allow us not only to develop and plan a particular area of urban activity, but also to look ahead by laying in the city development plan certain measures that may become relevant in 20-30 years.
As explained in GAU “Research and Design Institute of the General Plan of the City of Moscow”, for this purpose, balance models of development are created. For example, places where labor is applied, when specialists propose for residential development those areas that would allow the city to develop harmoniously. In addition, there are ecological models of the city. They describe the natural component, allow predicting the level of noise, emissions, anthropogenic loads. Separate models take into account the cadastral value of land plots depending on changes in a wide variety of infrastructure parameters. On the basis of production models, a system of managerial models and decisions is built that are used by the Moscow Architecture Committee, issuing GPZU, amendments to the PPZ, developing new documents. For example, the recently developed SPRIT – a consolidated plan for regulating the use of territories – allows you to understand the established regimes for any site in the city.
Marat Khusnullin, Deputy Mayor of Moscow for urban planning and construction:
“Today, on the basis of the Urban Planning Policy Complex, we are creating a full-fledged information platform, setting ourselves the task of switching to BIM design at least at all facilities that are built for budget money. Why are we doing this? When adjusting even one of the project parameters, many characteristics that depend on it change. Information modeling makes it possible to consider the project as a whole. Information modeling technologies help reduce the risk of errors and allow you to foresee most of the difficulties even before the construction phase of the facility. In addition, when designing houses in accordance with BIM technologies, a new lifestyle of citizens is formed, a new structure of their habitat that allows not only building a specific number of houses, but also creating new jobs, envisaging which social objects to be built in these territories, to understand how the roads will pass, how far these territories will be accessible from a transport point of view, and how all this will affect the cost per square meter of housing. The use of information modeling technologies will help to reduce the cost of projects, and will allow for the costs of the future operation of buildings and their overhaul to be taken into account. We are trying to link this platform with other information resources in order to be able to make the necessary management and urban development decisions. We also made an amendment to the Federal Town Planning Code, according to which Moscow, when introducing BIM technologies, has the right to establish its legislative acts. Thanks to this, during 2019–2020, we will switch to the use of BIM technologies in many areas, including at the stage of project appraisal”
Large industry sections of the city is not the only thing experts rely on. There are also separate planning projects for districts and linear facilities. For them, models are used that are closest to BIM-models, since they include entire data sets – by cost, timing and other parameters. This whole system of models is interconnected: information, imitation, and object create a certain general information field with a huge complex of information.
For example, the answer to the question about the population of Moscow (and the figure varies even depending on the season) can be obtained not only from official statistics, but also based on data from telecom operators, thanks to which you can accurately understand where people live, where they work, where are moving. In the General Plan, they show an electronic map, which, based on dynamic indicators, displays from which areas of the city and region people are moving to work in the Moscow City City Center. There are also such narrow sections for study. For the development of the transport system, they are indispensable. Now the process of creating 3D-information models of territorial units of the city and large projects is ongoing. Gradually, they will cover the entire metropolis.
For the development of BIM-direction at the Institute of the General Plan, a unit for BIM-design was created. Gradually, this technology in the classroom is mastered by specialists who are involved in the development of certain territories or projects. That is, through work assignments, the process of training all employees of the institute is ongoing.
According to the deputy mayor of Moscow for urban planning and construction, Marat Khusnullin, the use of computer modeling allows you to reduce the cost of projects, even take into account such a moment as the further operation of buildings. “The future is behind these technologies,” the head of the Moscow construction complex is convinced.
Pioneers of a new sphere
The development of electronic technologies, the transition to the on-line format have become breakthrough in the activities of the Moscow State Expertise. Even before 2012, expert work was carried out on paper. Huge masses of documents were handed over to specialists from hand to hand. Difficulties in their transportation, adjustment, storage – all this was perceived as an inevitable evil. Since 2012, the Electronic Project system was introduced, and in 2013–2014, the development of BIM modeling began. Officially, this direction, according to the decision of the city authorities, started in 2017. Now the department oversees the implementation of the plan for the implementation of BIM-technologies in construction.
In Mosgosexpertiza, earlier than in other sectoral structures of the city, a work office was created, whose activities were associated with a new direction. Its experts explain how information and digital models differ. The first is a complete set of data about an object that a person is able to evaluate, the second is data that a machine can recognize. Visually, it may look like this: a graphic picture of a building is an information model. It is in digital form – this is a whole mass of numbers and letters that a computer can absorb. Thanks to this technology, an expert can establish errors and problem areas in projects, and in a matter of seconds. In time, the same volume of tasks “manually” can be completed in a month. Although so far, experts say, it is impossible to completely replace a person in this area, in particular due to the ambiguity of some standards.
A vivid example of already transferred to operation and made fully in 3D technology was the recently opened Palace of Gymnastics Irina Viner-Usmanova in Luzhniki. For the design of the building – very complex in form, with elements of parametric architecture – the Pride TPO was invited. The head of the BIM office of the company, Vitaliy Krest’yanchik, notes that today this is the main specialization of NGOs. In partnership with the world-famous Zaha Hadid Architecrs bureau, Pride has completed projects such as the development of the embankment in Novorossiysk, the metropolitan renovation area in Kuzminki, the residential complex Petra Alekseeva, and the residential complex Seliger City. And today, every company, ordering a BIM-model, expresses its own set of requirements, a common standard does not exist.
It is known that the sketch of the building of the Gymnastics Palace was drawn by the chief architect of the city Sergey Kuznetsov. To implement the project, it was necessary to attract many organizations, a huge number soft programs and applications. During the design process, the shape of the roof of the building and the material of its frame were changed from wooden to metal. The peasant notes that the cost of the roof due to the technology of BIM-modeling was reduced by four times. The design process itself developed rationally in time: many of its important starting components, such as the layout of cartridges (golden triangular aluminum modules on the roof eaves), were calculated in BIM. This reduced the time and did not lead to a delay in construction.
Today, the palace project has become a participant in the “Sports Facilities” nomination of the prestigious international competition, which will be held this year in Amsterdam.
Construction worker with tablet
BIM-modeling optimizes the work of companies that are dynamically developing this area in their activities. Group “Etalon”, working
on the country’s construction market for 30 years, it has about a dozen projects developed and implemented in BIM. And these are quite large areas of development. In the active phase of construction is the Silver Fountain BIM project on Novoalekseevskaya Street. It is interesting in that it combines the historical part – the water station facilities created back in the 19th century – and modern buildings of different storeys. Former industrial volumes will fulfill a public function.
The degree of company’s advancement in the implementation of BIM technologies is underlined by the fact that projects are carried out not only in BIM. Estimated and settlement departments work on them. And recently, a company using BIM has begun to monitor safety compliance. The group has its own contracting teams, which allows it to implement BIM as widely as possible, including the construction phase itself.
Source: Moskovskaya perspektiva