Digital Twins: How Bim Technologies Change Urban Development
A working group on the implementation of information modeling technologies (BIM) during construction was formed in the capital’s construction complex.
Changes made to the Town Planning Code in June this year introduced concepts such as an information model, the formation and maintenance of a building information classifier, digital architecture, and the life cycle of an object. These innovations make it possible to begin the active introduction of BIM-technologies, which becomes a necessary component during the active transition to the digital economy. She, in turn, requires a qualitative change in organizational and technological approaches when creating the city of the future.
Technologies for renovation
Information technology is used in the design of residential areas created by the renovation program. According to the deputy mayor of Moscow for urban planning and construction, Marat Khusnullin, the use of computer modeling will make it possible to reduce the cost of projects and take into account all aspects of the operation and subsequent overhaul of buildings.
“We are trying to link this platform with other information resources in order to make all the necessary managerial and town-planning decisions,” the deputy mayor said. – During this and next year we plan to switch to BIM technologies, including at the stage of project appraisal. We also set the task for customers who work for city funds. These technologies are the future.
According to the head of the Moscow Construction Complex, for the transition to BIM-technologies, some of the employees of the enterprises must undergo appropriate training.
In addition, when designing houses in accordance with BIM technologies, the social component of the projects will be laid down: how the roads will go, what social facilities you need to build, how the appearance of the necessary infrastructure will affect the price per square meter of housing.
“For example, the transport accessibility of a number of regions will be seriously affected by the passage of the Moscow central diameters,” said Marat Khusnullin.
“VM” figured out how new technologies will change the idea of urban development. Recall that BIM (Building Information Modeling) is an information modeling of a building. The peculiarity of this approach is that the construction object is designed as a whole. Changing a parameter entails an automatic change in the parameters and objects associated with it, up to drawings, visualizations, specifications, and a calendar.
As Oleg Grigoryev, First Deputy Director of the General Plan Institute, said, different types of modeling help create a digital description of the city, set parameters for future buildings, roads, utility networks, natural sites, places of residence and employment.
“After a thorough computer analysis, you can figure out where to build additional interchanges, expand roads and even look into the future, determining what will happen to this or that road in 15-30 years, how it will be loaded,” he noted.
Information technology helps to calculate the ecological model of the city and the anthropogenic load on the metropolis, to find out how many places of employment are needed in a particular area.
The Institute of the General Plan deals with all this – almost 800 people. More recently, a separate structure has been added here, which is directly involved in the implementation of BIM-technologies. First of all, this concerns the program of renovation and design of transport facilities.
“This was first done at a facility in Metrogorodok,” said Oleg Grigoryev.
Two residential buildings are being designed using BIM technology.
“We plan to completely switch to BIM technologies in the design of linear objects within three years,” he said
A great advantage of implementing information modeling will be the opportunity for all project participants at different stages of its implementation to obtain the necessary data.
“Interdisciplinary conflicts and errors can be eliminated even at the level of developing a digital model,” Oleg Grigoryev continued. – And pre-prepared elements allow you to quickly design typical objects, later use the generated model when compiling design estimates.
This is true when developing house designs. But technology can be applied even more widely. Airat Akhmetov, head of the urban planning sector of the General Planning Institute of Moscow, says that the capital level is constantly monitored. Do it according to cellular operators.
“The focus is on traffic flows: how much time the townspeople spend on getting from their place of residence to work or school,” he says. – The information model is a dynamic model of the city, which allows you to track the evolution of the metropolis per day or during the existence of the master plan.
In addition, the collection and analysis of data allows you to identify areas with great development potential, identify problem areas – the difficulties associated with transport accessibility, with jobs.
These data allow you to make changes to various design decisions. For example, the Troitsky and Novomoskovsky districts have great potential, which means that special attention is paid to their development. But even in a built-up city, in contrast to the annexed territories, there is additional potential, new growth points.
“So, Moscow with the launch of the central diameters becomes a real metropolitan area,” said Airat Akhmetov.
According to him, now the model is built on the entire urban agglomeration. There are a lot of data sources: statistics, BTI, mobile operators, opinion polls. All these figures are averaged and laid down in one model.
– We see positive changes in the city, in particular, more and more people are changing to public transport. About 80 percent of Muscovites use the metro, buses, trams, car sharing, bike rental, and only 20 percent choose a private car, ”said Sergei Ovchinnikov, chief specialist in the development of off-street transport at the General Plan Institute of Moscow.
No red tape
Denis Davydov, head of the project office for the implementation of BIM technologies at Moskomekspertiza, emphasizes that the translation of the documentation into electronic form has become another advantage of the implementation of BIM technologies. Such files will not be lost, replaced, and the productivity of experts increases significantly.
“The volume of expert opinions from 2012 to 2019 has grown eight times: more than nine thousand opinions are issued per year,” he said, adding that the introduction of BIM technologies began in 2017.
Now, in a matter of seconds, the machine makes more than 225 thousand checks of a specific object, for example, a residential complex. One person needs at least a month to check an object and identify errors. The system does this in seconds.
“Nevertheless, a number of checks cannot be automated – the signatures and final decisions are made by experts,” he added. – The entire history of checks is stored in the system.
The requirements apply to residential complexes, educational facilities and administrative buildings.
“We want to determine the volumes and tie them to the cost of work,” he added.
In Moscow, objects designed using BIM technologies are not so many. Of the recently introduced ones – the Irina Wiener-Usmanova Gymnastics Palace in Luzhniki. Also, the project for the restoration of the Polytechnic has been prepared taking into account the innovations. Next in line are houses for renovation, a rehabilitation center in Skolkovo, houses in the ZIL area and other facilities.
Source: Vechernya Moskva