Moscow makes extensive use of BIM technology in urban planning
More recently, information modeling technologies were considered exotic, and today they are becoming part of the daily work of design organizations and architectural offices. Last week, GAU “Institute of the General Plan of Moscow” organized a press tour during which journalists were shown how BIM technologies are used in urban planning.
Today, when it comes to BIM technologies, many immediately imagine a model of an individual object. Indeed, the so-called object models describe, as a rule, a building or a group of buildings located in a limited territory, or a linear object – a road, a system of roads or transport structures. However, the capabilities of information modeling technologies are by no means limited to this; they can be used to create higher-level models.
As Oleg Grigoryev, First Deputy Director of the Institute of the General Plan of Moscow for Production Issues, said, the Institute makes extensive use of BIM technologies to create various types of models. So, for example, information models are formed that describe individual aspects of the life of the capital. These are static models; they fix a situation that develops at a certain moment.
The second layer is simulation models that allow us to predict the development of processes. For example, transport models not only allow you to determine how the urban transport network functions today, but also allow you to understand what needs to be done to make the city “travel” faster. Such models allow you to “look” far, sometimes 20-30 years in advance. It is possible to build models that take into account the placement of places of employment and help rationally place new industries and services. Simply put, such models allow you to answer the question of where you can and should add jobs, and where this is not worth it. Environmental simulation models describe the natural component of the city and allow, in conjunction with transport models, to predict the situation with noise, emissions and anthropogenic loads on the territory.
There are simulation models based on economic indicators. For example, a model may describe the situation with the cadastral value of land plots depending on the changes that occur in or near these territories.
A system of managerial models is built on the basis of object, information, balance, simulation models, which allows the Committee on Architecture and Urban Planning of the City of Moscow (Moskomarchitectura) to make management decisions. For example, now the committee has completed work on a consolidated plan for the use of the territory, which will determine the modes of use of any land in the city. Currently, an automated information system for monitoring and implementing the Moscow Master Plan is being developed, which allows you to consistently record changes that occur in the city and determine trends in its development. In this case, it will be possible to understand how the ongoing processes deviate from the plan and what needs to be done to adjust them.
Unified data source
“Why are we doing this? In fact, not in order to be in a trend, but because it is impossible to work differently now, ”Oleg Grigoriev explains. – This technology very sharply raises the accuracy of the project and increases the speed and variability of its implementation. With those organizations that carry out design estimates, we immediately exchange models. We give them a model, and they do not start from scratch, but issue design and estimate documentation using this model”
According to the first deputy director of the General Plan Institute, object models for renovation projects are being implemented. One of them was shown to reporters in the training and experimental class of the institute. On the computer screens appeared the project of the territorial planning of Nagatinsky Zaton, made in 3D. These were not just “blanks” of buildings and structures, located on the territory, the model contained all kinds of landscaping elements, underground utilities and new roads. All the main buildings planned on this site were attached with the information necessary for making decisions.
“This is a kind of blank that has all the information on buildings, but does not say anything about architecture,” Oleg Grigoryev explains. “Architecture is already at the next stages, this is when the design and estimate documentation for this building will be carried out, and here only the volumes, insolation, planting of buildings, organization of the territory, relief, improvement”.
They showed reporters and models created for linear objects. For example, a section of Upper Fields Street, on which elements of the road, buildings, landscaping and utilities were presented. At the same time, the existing communications and the design part were combined into one model, which allows us to identify various conflicts at an early stage and eliminate them before construction begins. The models are dynamic: in the case of any changes to the project, you can automatically see how these changes will affect other elements. All changes that occur are displayed on a common model. In addition, summary models are a source of guidance – you can mark all the necessary errors on them, which the designer can then correct. Thus, according to the specialists of the institute, one of the main meanings of information models is embodied – to create a single source of relevant data in which any project participant can get the information he needs.